I also want to know how these turning points influenced the outcome of the war
The act by the Japanese of bombing Pearl Harbor in Hawaii was a major turning point. This is because it ensued United States involvement in the Oriental activities of World War II.
The United States involvement in the European activities of World War II was a major turning point. It is my understanding that this occurred because Hitler declared war on the United States. However, I have never found any evidence of this, such as a recorded speech of his.
The invention of the atom bomb at Los Alemos, New Mexico would ensue another major turning point. We used such twice against Japan as we bombed Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This led to such surrender.
Another major turning point occurred in Germany. The military Generals attempted to assassinate Hitler. It was unsuccessful. Hitler responded by executing them. He lost his military leadership. It was difficult for him to proceed with a compromised military.