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the achievments of the early greeks were recorded by the greek poet homer during the 700s bc. How do Homers epics contribute to our understanding of the early g

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Homer is credited with recording the oral history of ancient times. His style of epic poetry speaks from the viewpoint of a common man, rather than that of a noble position.  HOW do these epics of Homer reveal the history of the early Greeks?  I look first to the CONTENT to observe what material goods were in use at the time, ships, carts, wagons, etc.  Then I look to the VERBS chosen by Homer to depict action. His Epics are full of rapid action and ease of expression. Much of Homer's work was sung. How might it sound? I do not know.
 
I look at the VALUES Homer has attributed to his characters to learn what people were like. Homer's heroes show strength, honor and courage.  A close look at his work reveals a preference for the commoner and a bias against the wealthy noblemen who were too quick to judge and punish the poor. 

From his descriptions of LOCATIONS, I learned that Homer appreciated nature and recognized local variations in culture. He identifies some birds and plants and describes women performing daily tasks. 
 
From his descriptions of warfare he shows no significant preference or prejudice for the primary parties. Rather his concern is more one of fairness and justice. 

The description in Wikipedia is fair and scholarly and offers more insights into this question.
 
Scholars debate whether Homer was blind or illiterate, yet give high praise to his narratives and speeches. He was known to linger around the harbor gates, almost as a wandering poet might.