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what is the independent variable and what does it mean? what is the dependent variable and what does it mean?

art supply store is having inventory sales. All items are marked down by 25 percent. Michael plans to buy three sets of oil paints and two paint brushes. He calculates the sale price of each item by using the function f(p)=p-0.25p where p represents the original price of the item.
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Most often use of these terms is in relation to analytical equations. Generally the independent variable is on the right while the dependent variable is on the left. Example
 
Y = 3*X + 4. Y is the dependent variable and X is the independent variable plus the constant (plus 4).
 Independent variable is the variable that takes changes, and dependent variable is what follows the change of independent variable in a functional relationship.
 
  In graph independent variable is taken to be horizontal line.
 
    Take an example:
 
     C = 30 + 20 h
 
      Represents cost of pluming.
       30 dollar is fixed cost of calling for visit
        20 dollar is the cost of each our of work.
 
       So , here h is independent variable. Each hour of work adds 20 dollar to the cost ( C) , and C
          is dependent variable , whose value will change following h, according the number of hours of work
         done on the job.
 
          So if we make a table of Content:
          
           h           C
           1            50
           2           70 
           3           90 ,  and so on.   
           

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