solution to what type of a planet would have and average temperature of 40 degrees, a year on the planet lasts 423 earth days
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Assuming this planet orbits our Sun, we can use Kepler's 3rd law to find its distance from the Sun: If T is the planet's period, its average distance from the Sun r is given by
where T is in earth years and r in astronomical units (AU). With T=423 days = 1.16 years we get
r = (1.16²)1/3=1.10 AU,
which puts this planet outside earth's orbit (1.0 AU by definition), but inside Mars's orbit (1.5 AU). That means it is a terrestrial planet like Earth and Mars, so it is small, rocky and has a metallic core, with few or no moons.
For it to have an average surface temperature higher than earth's (40°C>15°C), it must have an atmosphere which is denser than the earth's atmosphere and/or contains more greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide or methane. These gases cause the greenhouse effect, which is responsible for an increase in surface temperature.
The planet would still be in the habitable zone, where surface water could be liquid year-round, depending on the tilt of its axis, its rotational period, and the eccentricity of its orbit.
I had to do a little Internet research. In the past decade, the average earth temperature was...
14.51 Celsius & 58.12 Fahrenheit.
By your use of 40-degrees, I do not know if this is C or F. So I will answer both questions.
Let's begin with the issue of temperature in terms of Celsius...
40 Celsius = 104 Degree Fahrenheit
This is a much warmer planet which either experiences extreme summers beyond 40 Degrees Celsius, or experiences summer-time qualities all year long.
Let's proceed with the issue of temperature in terms of Fahrenheit...
40 Degrees Fahrenheit=4 Degrees Celsius
This is a cooler planet which may experience seasonality similar to that on earth, except slightly cooler. Or it experiences very cold temperatures all year long.
As to the issue of 423 earth days...
I am assuming this is not the longevity of the planet, but rather the quantity of days required for it to revolve around the same sun as ours, or a similar one within another solar system. Our planet earth requires 365 days for three years, and in the fourth year, 366 days (i.e., leap year). We are on a four year cycle of 1461 days. There is no such specification as to this planet. Nonetheless, assuming each day is the same 24 hours as the earth's, its trip around its sun is longer. If each day is shorter than the earth's, then its 423 days may correspond to our 365+ days.
I hope this helps.