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Frank L.

Hellertown, PA


I love golf, my dog and teaching;not necessarily in that order!

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Lehigh University (Bethlehem, PA)
Northeastern University -Control Systems Design
Graduate Coursework
Wharton School Managerial Finance
Graduate Coursework


Lehigh University (Bethlehem, PA) (ENG PHYSICS)

Northeastern University -Control Systems Design (Graduate Coursework)

Wharton School Managerial Finance (Graduate Coursework)

About Frank

Hi. My name is Frank. I have a degree in Engineering Physics from Lehigh University and have taken graduate level financial management courses from the Wharton School - University of PA.

I have more than 25 years of experience - not one year repeated 25 times! Those 25 years encapsulate detailed responsibilities and accomplishments in computer control systems design and modelling, industrial marketing/sales and executive management.

My students will get the benefit of my education, teaching experience and practical business experience. For tutoring, I use the latest computer-assisted learning tools. A picture is worth a thousand words!

My undergraduate required courses were concentrated in mathematics, specifically Calculus 1, 2, & 3, Algebra, Geometry, Trigonometry and Differential Equations with Matrices.
For those seeking assistance in "test taking" math skills, I am highly proficient at both ACT and SAT math subjects.

I majored in Electrical Engineering for two years and then switched to Physics for the last two years. My graduate work was in Control Systems Theory and Design (Laplace, Fourier and Z transforms and Bode plots).

Mathematics and Control Systems are two areas of focus I have had in both my undergraduate and graduate studies. These are my areas of expertise in the hard sciences. As a graduate student, my first experience in tutoring was providing assistance to new engineers. I eventually branched out to help in other fields. It was thoroughly enjoyable to help someone to understand a difficult subject and see them succeed.

A teacher at Lehigh gave me advice which I use as an axiom: "Try never to use a formula that you can't derive." I apply that axiom to all my student lessons and can see their eyes brighten when they fully realize the benefits of my approach over rote memorization.

I was promoted to executive management and was required to take a course in Managerial Finance at the University of PA Wharton so I also teach Managerial Accounting based on real world examples.

My teaching philosophy is as follows:
1. If possible, never use a formula you cannot derive yourself!
2. A. Einstein: "Keep everything as simple as possible, but no simpler."
3. Networking can get you a job; only performance will guarantee your job. In this "high tech" era do not omit critical education courses in math and science.
4. To assure your chances of success, think of learning as fun investment!
5. "Fault has been found in that some articles are hard to read; perhaps they were harder to write!" Source unknown.
6. Do you know anyone who succeeded without doing their homework? Why? Because studies demonstrate homework improves the brain's retention time due to repeated reinforcement and therefore enhances memory recall when you really need it--like an exam!
Hi. My name is Frank. I have a degree in Engineering Physics from Lehigh University and have taken graduate level financial management courses from the Wharton School - University of PA.

I have more than 25 years of experience - not one year repeated 25 times! Those 25 years…
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16 hours notice required

First session- one hour $30.00. 2nd- $25.00 if on same day or $30.00 if on different days. Request special discount quote for more than 5 sessions or group rates.

Travel Radius
Travels within 15 miles of Hellertown, PA 18055
Background Check: Passed

"Great Tutor"

- Hunter, Gilbert, AZ on 10/27/12
Adobe Flash, Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Photoshop,
AutoCAD, General Computer,
Microsoft Excel,
Microsoft Outlook,
Microsoft Project, Microsoft Publisher, Microsoft Word,
Oracle, SQL,
Visual Basic
Special Needs:

Approved subjects are in bold.

Approved subjects

In most cases, tutors gain approval in a subject by passing a proficiency exam. For some subject areas, like music and art, tutors submit written requests to demonstrate their proficiency to potential students. If a tutor is interested but not yet approved in a subject, the subject will appear in non-bold font. Tutors need to be approved in a subject prior to beginning lessons.


Basic Accounting
Table of Contents for Beginners
Part 1
• What is accounting?
• How does accounting work?
• Debits and credits
• Double-entry bookkeeping explained
• Preparation of Financial Statements
Part 2
• Analysis of Financial Statements
and Cash flows using Form 10k*
• Loans -Debt versus Equity
Part 3
• Fixed assets and depreciation
• Inventory
• Sales versus Income
• Profitability and Cash Flow
• Accrual accounting
• Fiscal Periods
Part 4
• Payroll
• Journals
• General Ledger
* I will use Form 10k's of real businesses for tutoring in this class

ACT English

The ACT English Test assesses your knowledge of English grammar and writing. On the test, you will have 45 minutes to answer 75 questions. That may seem like a large number of questions and relatively little time, but the English Test, more than any other ACT Subject Test, assesses what you already know, rather than what you can figure out if you are given certain information. Essentially, this means you can be completely prepared for the English Test if you study all the material it covers. This tutorial will teach you exactly that material.

ACT Math

ACT Mathematics

The official is the 60-minute, 60-question mathematics test with 14 covering prealgebra, 10 elementary algebra, 9 intermediate algebra, 14 plane geometry, 9 coordinate geometry, and 4 elementary trigonometry. Calculators are permitted in this section only. The calculator requirements are stricter than the SAT's in that computer algebra systems are not allowed; however, ACT permits calculators with paper tapes, that make noise (but must be disabled), or that have power cords with certain "modifications" (i.e., disabling the mentioned features), which the SAT does not allow. Also, this is the only section that has five instead of four answer choices.

ACT Reading

ACT Reading Test Description

The Reading Test is a 40-question, 35-minute test that measures your reading comprehension. You're asked to read several passages and answer questions that show your understanding of:

what is directly stated
statements with implied meanings

Specifically, you will use referring and reasoning skills to:

determine main ideas
locate and interpret significant details
understand sequences of events
make comparisons
comprehend cause-effect relationships
determine the meaning of context-dependent words, phrases, and statements
draw generalizations
analyze the author's or narrator's voice and method

The test comprises four sections, each containing one long or two shorter prose passages that are representative of the level and type of reading required in first-year college courses. Passages on topics in social studies, natural sciences, prose fiction, and the humanities are included.

Each passage is accompanied by a set of multiple-choice test questions. In sections that contain two short passages, some of the questions involve both of the passages in the section. These questions do not test the rote recall of facts from outside the passage, isolated vocabulary items, or rules of formal logic. Instead, the test focuses on the complementary and supportive skills that readers must use in studying written materials across a range of subject areas.

ACT Science

The ACT Science Test is a 40-question, 35-minute test that measures the skills required in the natural sciences: interpretation, analysis, evaluation, reasoning, and problem solving.
You are not permitted to use a calculator on the Science Test.

The test assumes that students are in the process of taking the core science course of study (three years or more) that will prepare them for college-level work and have completed a course in Earth science and/or physical science and a course in biology.


The symptoms of ADHD include inattention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity. These are traits that most children display at some point or another. But to establish a diagnosis of ADHD, sometimes referred to as ADD, the symptoms should be inappropriate for the child's age.

ADHD is common in children and teens. Adults also can have ADHD. With ADHD in adults, there may be some variation in symptoms. For instance, an adult may experience restlessness instead of hyperactivity. In addition, adults with ADHD consistently have problems with interpersonal relationships and employment.

I have raised a child with ADD, attended professional symposiums and completely understand the frustrations of the child (and the parents), and believe drugs for treatment should be use minimally and properly supervised.

Adobe Photoshop

Adobe Photoshop: In computer graphics, graphics software or image editing software, such as Photoshop, is a program or that enable a person to manipulate images on a computer.

Computer graphics can be classified into two distinct categories: raster graphics and vector graphics. Many graphics programs focus exclusively on either vector or raster graphics, but there are a few that combine them in interesting ways. It is simple to convert from vector graphics to raster graphics, but going the other way is harder.

In addition to static pictures, there are animation and video editing software.

Photoshop has the ability to import and export one or more picture file formats.

The use of a swatch is a palette of active colors that are selected and rearranged by the preference of the user. It is used to change the color of a project, that may be text, image or video editing. Vector graphics animation can be described as a series of mathematical transformations that are applied in sequence to one or more shapes in a scene. Raster graphics animation works in a similar fashion to film-based animation, where a series of still images produces the illusion of continuous movement.

This course is intended mainly for beginners who have used a digital camera or have old paper photographs and want to learn how to import and edit their photos ;then learn the next steps to be a Graphics Designer.

Algebra 1

Elementary algebra is a fundamental and relatively basic form of algebra. It is taught to students who are presumed to have little or no formal knowledge of mathematics beyond arithmetic. It is typically taught in secondary school under the term algebra. The major difference between algebra and arithmetic is the inclusion of variables. While in arithmetic only numbers and their arithmetical operations (such as +, -, ×, ÷) occur, in algebra, one also uses variables such as x and y, or a and b to replace numbers

Algebra 2

Algebra II Course Description: This course is designed to build on algebraic and geometric concepts. The goal of this course is to explain the visual graphic representation of higher-order functions and complex rates of change. The skills learned will prove helpful in school work and subsequent precalculus and calculus classes. Additionally, they will be useful in standardized testing, such as the SAT Subject Tests.
The students will review basic concepts such as equations and inequalities, the coordinate system and functions of multiple variables. Students will examine these topics in greater depth, along with quadratic functions and factoring. The course provides a study of polynomials, including complex numbers and fractional exponents. Students will learn to graph rational equations and conic sections such as parabolas, ellipses, hyperbolas and more. The course will provide a structured introduction to logarithmic functions and other concepts of higher-level math that provides the basis of calculus and other advanced math topics. The course will not cover data analysis, statistics, probability, sequences and series.
It develops advanced algebra skills such as systems of equations, advanced polynomials, complex numbers, quadratics, and concepts and includes the study of trigonometric functions. It also introduces matrices and their properties. The content of this course are important for students’ success on both the ACT and college mathematics entrance exams. Students who complete Algebra II should take Precalculus next.
This (Algebra II) course can be offered as a one semester or two semester course or individual tutoring based on an assessment of the student's current skill level


Anatomy is a branch of biology and medicine that considers the structure of living things. It is a general term that includes human anatomy, animal anatomy (zootomy), and plant anatomy (phytotomy). In some of its facets anatomy is closely related to embryology, comparative anatomy and comparative embryology, through common roots in evolution.

Anatomy is subdivided into gross anatomy (or macroscopic anatomy) and microscopic anatomy.
Gross anatomy is the study of anatomical structures that can, when suitably presented or dissected, be seen by unaided vision with the naked eye.
Microscopic anatomy is the study of minute anatomical structures on a microscopic scale. It includes histology (the study of tissues), and cytology (the study of cells). The terms microanatomy and histology are also sometimes used synonymously (in which case the distinction between histology and cell biology isn't strictly made as described here).

The history of anatomy has been characterized, over time, by a continually developing understanding of the functions of organs and structures in the body. Methods have also improved dramatically, advancing from examination of animals through dissection of cadavers (dead human bodies) to technologically complex techniques developed in the 20th century including X-ray, ultrasound, and MRI.

Anatomy should not be confused with anatomical pathology (also called morbid anatomy or histopathology), which is the study of the gross and microscopic appearances of diseased organs.


Astronomy is a natural science that deals with the study of celestial objects (such as stars, planets, comets, nebulae, star clusters and galaxies) and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth (such as cosmic background radiation). It is concerned with the evolution, physics, chemistry, meteorology, and motion of celestial objects, as well as the formation and development of the universe.


The ASVAB is the most widely used multiple-aptitude test battery in the world.

The ASVAB was originally designed to predict future academic and occupational success in military occupations.
Several composite scores are formed from different combinations of ASVAB test scores. Three composites, or Career Exploration Scores, are provided specifically to help students engage in career exploration. These scores help students to get a good sense of their verbal, math, and science and technical skills compared to other students in the same grade. ASVAB results are reported to students and counselors on the ASVAB Summary Results sheet. This report shows grade-specific, gender-specific, and combined standard scores and score bands for all eight tests and three Career Exploration Scores. It also provides students with percentile-based interpretations of those scores. The ASVAB Summary Results sheet provides students with appropriate explanations of the scores, as well as suggestions for their use.


Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy.

Biology is a vast subject containing many subdivisions, topics, and disciplines.

Among the most important topics are five unifying principles that can be said to be the fundamental axioms of modern biology:

1. Cells are the basic unit of life
2. New species and inherited traits are the product of evolution
3. Genes are the basic unit of heredity
4. An organism regulates its internal environment to maintain a stable and constant condition
5. Living organisms consume and transform energy.

Sub-disciplines of biology are recognized on the basis of the scale at which organisms are studied and the methods used to study them: biochemistry examines the rudimentary chemistry of life; molecular biology studies the complex interactions of systems of biological molecules; cellular biology examines the basic building block of all life, the cell; physiology examines the physical and chemical functions of the tissues, organs, and organ systems of an organism; evolutionary biology examines the processes that have given rise to the diversity of life; and ecology examines how various organisms interact and associate with their environment.


Calculus take the theory and practices of trigonometry and algebra to a higher level.Calculus has two major divisions:
1.Differential Calculus ;studies of rates of change of systems
2. Integral Calculus which is the inverse i.e give the rate of change what is the system function?
This course is fundamental to anyone who aspires to be an engineer, scientist, biologist, pre-med or business/investment analyst.
Trigonometry and algebra are pre-requisites!
The course is typically at least 2 semesters and is a pre-requsite for courses in differential equations


Chemistry is the science of matter, especially its chemical reactions, but also its composition, structure and properties. Chemistry is concerned with atoms and their interactions with other atoms, and particularly with the properties of chemical bonds. Chemistry is also concerned with the interactions between atoms (or groups of atoms) and various forms of energy (e.g. photochemical reactions, changes in phases of matter, separation of mixtures, properties of polymers, etc.).

Chemistry is sometimes called "the central science" because it connects physics with other natural sciences such as geology and biology. Chemistry is a branch of physical science but distinct from physics.
Basic Chemistry is the science of the bonding interactions between matter (particles of atoms and molecules) primarily by valence electrons.
Traditional chemistry starts with the study of elementary particles, atoms, molecules, metals, crystals and other aggregates of matter. in solid, liquid, and gas states, whether in isolation or combination. The interactions, reactions and transformations that are studied in chemistry are a result of valence electron interaction either between different chemical substances or and energy.
A chemical reaction is a transformation of some substances into one or more other substances.. The number of atoms on the left and the right in the equation for a chemical transformation is most often equal due to physical laws conservation of energy. The nature of chemical reactions a substance may undergo and the energy changes that may accompany it are constrained by certain basic rules, known as chemical laws which are related to but distinct from quantum physics

Energy and entropy considerations are invariably important in almost all chemical studies. They can be analyzed using the tools of chemical analysis, e.g. spectroscopy and chromatography. Most chemists specialize in one or more sub-disciplines e.g.micro- biology or, chemical engineering
The biological, medical/pharmaceutical and nursing professions require firm grounding in chemistry.


Economics is a social science concerned chiefly with description and analysis of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Topics include the laws of supply and demand and the effect of various types of businesses on the business climate.

Elementary Math

Elementary Mathematics

Elementary mathematics consists of mathematics topics frequently taught at the primary or secondary school levels. The most basic topics in elementary mathematics are arithmetic and geometry. Beginning in the last decades of the 20th century, there has been an increased emphasis on probability and statistics and on problem solving.[1]

In secondary school, the main topics in elementary mathematics are algebra and trigonometry. calculus, even though it is often taught to advanced secondary school students, is usually considered college level mathematics.[2]

A mastery of elementary mathematics is necessary for many professions, including carpentry, plumbing, and automobile repair, as well as being a prerequisite for all advanced study in mathematics, science, engineering, medicine, business, architecture, and many other fields.

In the United States, there has been considerable concern about the low level of elementary mathematics skills on the part of many students, as compared to students in other developed countries. The No Child Left Behind program was one attempt to address this deficiency, requiring that all American students be tested in elementary mathematics.

Elementary Science

Science is the study of the world using collected knowledge, observation, and experimentation. A "science" is any one of innumerable fields of study and inquiry, some of which include facets of mental as well as physical phenomena.

Science can be defined as a method for studying the natural world.

Another definition is "the organized body of knowledge concerning the physical world, both animate and inanimate, and the attitudes and methods through which this body of knowledge is formed."
Elementary science introduces the scientific methods of study through lecture observation, experiments, research and field trips.


English is a language widely used in oral and written communications (in audio /visual via the Internet). Topics range from learning to speak, reading, writing, and vocabulary to comprehension and grammar.
A good knowledge is essential for success later in life


English as a second language (ESL), English for speakers of other languages (ESOL), English as an additional language (EAL), and English as a foreign language (EFL) all refer to the use or study of English by speakers with different native languages. The precise usage, including the different use of the terms ESL and ESOL in different countries, is described below. These terms are most commonly used in relation to teaching and learning English, but they may also be used in relation to demographic information.

English language teaching (ELT) is a widely used teacher-centered term, as in the English language teaching divisions of large publishing houses, ELT training, etc. Teaching English as a second language (TESL), teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) and teaching English as a foreign language (TEFL) are also used.

Other terms used in this field include English as an additional language (EAL), English as an international language (EIL), English as a lingua franca (ELF), English for special purposes, or English for specific purposes (ESP), English for academic purposes (EAP). Some terms that refer to those who are learning English are English-language learner (ELL), limited English proficiency (LEP) and culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD).

European History

European history is a vast subject and school courses are divided in to subtopics that are deemed necessary to achieve one's goal


1 Prehistory
1.1 cultures 7000-2750 BC
2 Minoans and Mycenae 2700–1100 BCE
3 Classical antiquity
3.1 Ancient Greece
3.2 The rise of Rome
3.3 Decline of the Roman Empire
3.4 Late Antiquity and Migration Period
4 Middle Ages
4.1 Byzantium
4.2 Early Middle Ages
4.2.1 Feudal Christendom
4.3 High Middle Ages
4.3.1 A divided church
4.3.2 Holy wars
4.4 Late Middle Ages
5 Early Modern Europe
5.1 Renaissance
5.2 Exploration and trade
5.3 Reformation
5.4 Mercantilism and colonial expansion
5.5 Crisis of the 17th century
5.6 Enlightenment
6 From revolution to imperialism
6.1 Industrial Revolution
6.2 Political revolution
6.3 Nations rising
6.4 Imperialism
7 World Wars and Cold War
7.1 First World War
7.2 Interwar
7.3 Great Depression
7.4 World War II
7.5 Cold War
8 Recent history
9 Timeline
10 See also
11 References
12 Bibliography
12.1 Surveys
12.2 Classical
12.3 Late Roman
12.4 Medieval
12.5 Early Modern
12.6 19th century
12.7 20th century
12.8 Agriculture and economy
12.9 Religion
12.10 Ideas and science
12.11 Social
12.12 Warfare
12.13 Women and gender
Typical course descriptions-contents are described in school catalogs


Finance is:

1. The science of the management of money and other assets such as stocks and bonds.
2. The management of money, banking, investments, and credit and exchange rates.
3. Monetary resources; funds, especially those of a government or corporate body.
4. The supplying of funds or capital.
5 Risk analysis factors: PV, NPV, and FV analysis of corporate balance sheet and cash flow statements


There are 50 questions on each part (except for the essay), so 200 in total.

The tests cover Math -Reading -Writing- Social studies and upon successful completion the student earns a high school equivalency certificate This certificate is accepted by over 90 % of colleges and universities.

The GED provides an excellent start to new career paths

General Computer

This course is oriented towards students who want to learn basics of computer hardware and software architecture. It assumes no previous knowledge or experience with computers

The hardware section covers CPUs, memory types, arithmetic unit and input-output hardware (PRINTERS - DISPLAYS -FLASH DRIVES)

Software content covered includes operating system function (Windows) ,application functions(Microsoft Office)

This course i.e. a prerequisite for students intent on building/designing websites or learning advanced applications


Geography is the science that studies the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of the Earth.. Four historical traditions in geographical research are the spatial analysis of the natural and the human phenomena (geography as the study of distribution), the area studies (places and regions), the study of the man-land relationship, and the research in the earth sciences.
Nonetheless, the modern geography is an all-encompassing discipline that foremost seeks to understand the Earth and all of its human and natural complexities—not merely where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. Geography has been called "the world discipline" and "the bridge between the human and the physical science". Geography is divided into two main branches: the human geography and the physical geography


Geology is the science comprising the study of solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they evolve. Geology can also refer generally to the study of the solid features of any celestial body (such as the geology of the Moon or Mars).

Geology gives insight into the history of the Earth, as it provides the primary evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life, and past climates. In modern times, geology is commercially important for mineral and hydrocarbon exploration and for evaluating water resources; it is publicly important for the prediction and understanding of natural hazards, the remediation of environmental problems, and for providing insights into past climate change; and is a major academic discipline.


Geometry is a part of mathematics concerned with questions of size, shape, relative position of figures and with properties of space. By figures we mean lines, circles, planes, polygons, pyramids and spheres! Geometry is useful in trigonometry and calculus, sciences and in many games.


The exam is intended to measure verbal, mathematical, and analytical writing skills that the examinee has developed over a long period of time! Test takers answer questions in each of these three areas:
The maximum score that can be achieved on the exam is 800.
The Analytical Writing Assessment (AWA) is the first section of the test. This is followed by the Quantitative section, and the test concludes with the Verbal Ability section.

Analytical Writing Assessment
The Analytical Writing Assessment (AWA) section of the test consists of two essays. In the first, the student must analyze an argument and in the second the student must analyze an issue. Each essay must be written within 30 minutes and is scored on a scale of 0–6. Each of the two essays in the Analytical Writing part of the test is graded on a scale of 0 (the minimum) to 6 (the maximum).

Problem solving
This tests the quantitative reasoning ability of the examinee. Problem-solving questions present multiple-choice problems in arithmetic, basic algebra, and elementary geometry. The task is to solve the problems and choose the correct answer from among five answer choices.

Data sufficiency
The data sufficiency section of the GMAT evaluates quantitative reasoning ability. The examinee is given a question with two associated statements that provide information that might be useful in answering the question. The examinee must then determine whether either statement alone is sufficient to answer the question, whether both are needed to answer the question, or whether there is not enough information given to answer the question.

Verbal section
The verbal section consists of 41 multiple choice questions, which must be answered within 75 minutes. There are three types of questions: sentence correction, critical reasoning, and reading comprehension. The verbal section is scored from 0 to 60 points.

Sentence correction
The sentence correction section tests a test taker's knowledge of American English grammar, usage, and style. Correct expression refers to the grammar and structure of the sentence.

Effective Expression refers to the clarity and concision used to express the idea. Proper Diction refers to the suitability and accuracy of the chosen words in reference to the dictionary meaning of the words and the context in which the words are presented.

Critical reasoning
The critical reasoning section tests logical thinking. Critical thinking items present an argument that the test taker is asked to analyze. Questions of this type ask the examinee to analyze and evaluate the reasoning in short paragraphs or passages.

Reading comprehension
The reading comprehension section tests the ability to read critically. Reading comprehension questions relate to a passage that is provided for the examinee to read. Total score
The "total score", composed of the quantitative and verbal sections, is exclusive of the analytical writing assessment (AWA), and ranges from 200 to 800.

Analytical Writing Assessment scores range from 0 to 6 and represent the average of the ratings from the two GMAT essays.

Government & Politics

This course surveys the structure and function of American government and politics that begins with an analysis of the United States Constitution, the foundation of the American political system. Students study the three branches of government, administrative agencies that support each branch, the role of political behavior in the democratic process, rules governing elections, political culture, and the workings of political parties and interest groups.

Your tutor has experience starting at the "grass roots' level including organizing and registering voters and holding fundraiser event for candidates. I am an independent voter.


English grammar is the set of structural rules that govern the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in the English language. The term refers also to the study of such rules, and this field includes morphology, syntax, and phonology, often complemented by phonetics, semantics, and pragmatics.

Grammars evolve through usage and also due to separations of the human population. With the advent of written representations, formal rules about language usage tend to appear also. Formal grammars are codifications of usage that are developed by repeated documentation over time, and by observation as well. As the rules become established and developed, the prescriptive concept of grammatical correctness can arise. This often creates a discrepancy between contemporary usage and that which has been accepted, over time, as being correct.

The formal study of grammar is an important part of education for children from a young age through advanced learning, though the rules taught in schools are not a "grammar" in the sense most linguists use the term, particularly as they are often prescriptive rather than descriptive.


The Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) is a standardized test that is an admissions requirement for many graduate schools in the United States, in other English-speaking countries and for English-taught graduate and business programs world-wide. Created and administered by Educational Testing Service (ETS) in 1949, the exam aims to measure verbal reasoning, quantitative reasoning, analytical writing and critical thinking skills that have been acquired over a long period of time and that are not related to any specific field of study. The GRE General Test is offered as a computer-based exam administered by selected qualified testing centers.
In the graduate school admissions process, the level of emphasis that is placed upon GRE scores varies widely between schools and between departments within schools. The importance of a GRE score can range from being a mere admission formality to an important selection factor.
The GRE was completely overhauled in August 2011, creating an exam that is not computer adaptive on a question-by-question basis (but is so on a section basis, is scored on a 130 to 170 scale, yet still retained sections and question types from its predecessor.

The cost to take the test varies between US $130 and $210, depending on the country in which it is taken, although ETS will reduce the fee under certain circumstances. They are promoting financial aid to those GRE applicants who prove economic hardship. ETS erases all test records that are older than 5 years, although graduate program policies on the admittance of scores older than 5 years will vary.


Introduction to Basic WEB Design:

All basic web design is based on the HTML programming language! It is a "high level language" meaning it does not require knowledge of any other programming language such as C or Fortran .

Also included in this course is how to design, setup, and own your own website

You will also learn how to differentiate style from content to optimize your web design


Java Programming

Java platform is the name for a bundle of related programs from Sun that allow for developing and running programs written in the Java programming language. The platform is not specific to any one processor or operating system, but rather an execution engine (called a virtual machine) and a compiler with a set of libraries that are implemented for various hardware and operating systems so that Java programs can run identically on all of them.

Java Virtual Machine

The heart of the Java platform is the concept of a "virtual machine" that executes Java bytecode programs. This bytecode is the same no matter what hardware or operating system the program is running under.
The use of bytecode as an intermediate language permits Java programs to run on any platform that has a virtual machine available. The use of a JIT compiler means that Java applications, after a short delay during loading and once they have "warmed up" by being all or mostly JIT-compiled, tend to run about as fast as native programs.[citation needed] Since JRE version 1.2, Sun's JVM implementation has included a just-in-time compiler instead of an interpreter.

Although Java programs are cross-platform or platform independent, the code of the Java Virtual Machines (JVM) that execute these programs is not. Every supported operating platform has its own JVM and Class libraries

Java Card: A technology that allows small Java-based applications (applets) to be run securely on smart cards and similar small-memory devices.
Java ME (Micro Edition): Specifies several different sets of libraries (known as profiles) for devices with limited storage, display, and power capacities. Often used to develop applications for mobile devices, PDAs, TV set-top boxes, and printers.
Java SE (Standard Edition): For general-purpose use on desktop PCs, servers and similar devices.
Java EE (Enterprise Edition): Java SE plus various APIs useful for multi-tier client–server enterprise applications.

The Java platform consists of several programs, each of which provides a portion of its overall capabilities. For example, the Java compiler, which converts Java source code into Java bytecode (an intermediate language for the JVM), is provided as part of the Java Development Kit (JDK). The Java Runtime Environment (JRE), complementing the JVM with a just-in-time (JIT) compiler, converts intermediate bytecode into native machine code on the fly. An extensive set of libraries are also part of the Java platform.

The essential components in the platform are the Java language compiler, the libraries, and the runtime environment in which Java intermediate bytecode "executes" according to the rules laid out in the virtual machine specification
Java is not the sames as Java Script



Literature is the art of written work and can, in some circumstances, refer exclusively to published sources. The word literature literally means "things made from letters" The two major classifications of literature are poetry and prose (which can be further sub-divided into fiction and non-fiction).

Literature may consist of texts based on factual information (journalistic or non-fiction), as well as on original imagination, such as polemical works as well as autobiography, and reflective essays as well as belles-lettres. Literature can be classified according to historical periods, genres, and political influences. The concept of genre, which earlier was limited, has broadened over the centuries. A genre consists of artistic works which fall within a certain central theme, and examples of genre include romance, mystery, crime, fantasy, erotica, and adventure, among others. Important historical periods in English literature include Old English, Middle English, the Renaissance, the 17th Century Shakespearean and Elizabethan times, the 18th Century Restoration, 19th Century Victorian, and 20th Century Modernism.
Major forms

Short story




Mathematica is a computational software program used in scientific, engineering, and mathematical fields and other areas of statistical technical computing. It has steep learning curve but is the most powerful computational tool available

I have used Mathematica tools for my work in Control Systems design for ten years

Features of Mathematica include:

Elementary mathematical function library
Special mathematical function library
Matrix and data manipulation tools including support for sparse arrays
Support for complex number and symbolic computation
2D and 3D data plots and function visualization and animation tools
Solvers for systems of equations, ODEs, PDEs, and recurrence relations
Numeric and symbolic tools for discrete and continuous calculus
Multivariate statistics libraries including fitting, hypothesis testing, and probability and expectation calculations on over 100 distributions.
Constrained and unconstrained local and global optimization
Programming language supporting procedural, functional and object oriented constructs
Toolkit for adding user interfaces to calculations and applications
Tools for image processing[6] and morphological image processing including image recognition
Tools for visualizing and analysing graphs
Tools for combinatoric problems
Tools for text mining including regular expressions and semantic analysis
Data mining tools such as cluster analysis, sequence alignment and pattern matching
Number theory function library
Tools for financial calculations including bonds, annuities, derivatives, options etc.
Group theory functions
Libraries for wavelet analysis on sounds, images and data
Control systems libraries
Continuous and discrete integral transforms
Import and export filters for data, images, video, sound, CAD, GIS,[7] document and biomedical formats
Database collection for mathematical, scientific, and socio-economic information and access to WolframAlpha data and computations

Tools for connecting to DLLs. SQL, Java, .NET, C++, FORTRAN, CUDA, OpenCL and http based systems


Mathematica is split into two parts, the kernel and the front end. The kernel interprets expressions (Mathematica code) and returns result expressions.

The front end, provides a GUI, which allows the creation and editing of Notebook documents containing program code with prettyprinting, formatted text together with results including typeset mathematics, graphics, GUI components, tables, and sounds. . Most standard word processing capabilities are supported!
Documents can be structured using a hierarchy of cells, which allow for outlining and sectioning of a document and support automatic numbering index creation. Documents can be presented in a slideshow environment for presentations.

Notebooks and their contents are represented as Mathematica expressions that can be created, modified or analysed by Mathematica programs. This allows conversion to other formats such as XML.

Microsoft Excel

Microsoft Excel has the basic features of a spreadsheet, using a grid of cells arranged in numbered rows and letter-named columns to organize data manipulations like arithmetic operations. It has a library of supplied functions to answer statistical, engineering and financial needs. In addition, it can display data as line graphs, histograms and charts . It allows sectioning of data to view its dependencies on various factors from different perspectives (using pivot tables and the scenario manager

And it has a programming aspect, Visual Basic for advanced Applications, allowing the user to employ a wide variety of numerical methods, for example, for solving differential equations of mathematical physics, and then reporting the results back to the spreadsheet.

Microsoft Outlook

Microsoft Word is a word processor and is the prime application program in Office. Word 2010 can also use the new XML-based for Web bases content structure along with .DOCX, as well as the standard .doc and .html web formats

Word is the primary publishing tool for most business and home computers and is used for letters and ebook publishing. It can import /export data files to many applications such as Excel spreadsheets for business and statistical data calculations and graphing and Powerpoint (which is a powerful Office tool for generating professional presentations.

Word also can automatically translate it files into Adobe.pdf file
I use these features in my tutoring and web design -they are great time savers

Microsoft Word

Microsoft Word (often called Word) is a graphical word processing program that users can type with. The purpose of the MS Word is to allow the users to type and save documents in computer(non paper) formats.

Similar to other word processors, it has helpful tools to make these documents paper. Some of the important tools are a spelling & grammar checker, word count (this also counts letters and lines), and the newer version includes speech recognition (a technology that lets users control their computers by speaking to it, or telling it what to write). Also, like with other programs, with this program one can make attractive documents, insert pictures in documents, make web pages, graphs etc. Also, you can create tables. Also, it displays synonyms (similar words) of words and can read out the text. It also can print in different ways.

It normally comes with Microsoft Office, but can be bought separately.

A working knowledge of WORD is an essential tool for everyone in the modern era;even entry level jobs list WORD as an job qualification

Organic Chemistry

Organic chemistry is a subdiscipline within chemistry involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of carbon-based compounds, hydrocarbons, and their derivatives. These compounds may contain any number of other elements, including hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, the halogens as well as phosphorus, silicon, and sulfur
Organic compounds form the basis of almost all earthly life processes (with very few exceptions). They are structurally diverse. The range of application of organic compounds is enormous. They either form the basis of, or are important constituents of, many products including plastics, drugs, petrochemicals, food, explosive material, and paints.
Basic chemistry is a prequisite

Physical Science

Physical science – encompasses the branches of natural science and science that study non-living systems, in contrast to the life sciences. However, the term "physical" creates an unintended, somewhat arbitrary distinction, since many branches of physical science also study biological phenomena. Basic principles of physics:

Physics is the "fundamental science" because the other natural sciences (biology, chemistry, geology, etc.) deal with systems that obey the laws of physics. The physical laws of matter, energy, and the forces of nature govern the interactions between particles (such as molecules, atoms, or subatomic particles).
Some basic parts of physics are:
Describing and measuring motion Newton's laws of motion
Forces, weight, and mass
Momentum and conservation of momentum

The theory of gravity
Energy, work, and power Motion, position, and energy

Energy forms Energy conservation, conversion, and transfer.
Energy source the transfer of energy from one source, to work in another.

Kinetic molecular theory Phases of matter and phase changes
Temperature and thermometers
Energy and heat
Heat flow: conduction, convection, and radiation
The three laws of thermodynamics

The principles of waves and sound
The principles of electricity, magnetism, and electromagnetism
The principles, sources, and properties of light


Physiology is the science of the function of living systems. This includes how organisms, organ systems, organs, cells, and bio-molecules carry out the chemical or physical functions that exist in a living system.

The principal level of focus of physiology is at the level of organs and systems within systems. Much of the foundation of knowledge in human physiology was provided by animal experimentation. Physiology is closely related to anatomy; anatomy is the study of form, and physiology is the study of function. Due to the frequent connection between form and function, physiology and anatomy are intrinsically linked and are studied in tandem as part of a medical curriculum.


In American mathematics education, precalculus (or Algebra 3 in some areas), is a foundational mathematical discipline. In many schools, precalculus is actually two separate courses: Algebra and Trigonometry. Precalculus prepares students for calculus the same way as pre-algebra prepares students for Algebra I. While pre-algebra teaches students many different fundamental algebra topics, precalculus does not involve calculus, but explores topics that will be applied in calculus. Some precalculus courses might differ with others in terms of content. For example, an honors level course might spend more time on topics such as conic sections, vectors, and other topics needed for calculus. A lower level class might focus on topics used in a wider selection of higher mathematical areas, such as matrices, which are used in business.


Probability is ordinarily used to describe some proposition of a truth of which we are not certain. [1] The proposition of interest is usually of the form "Will a specific event occur?" or is of the form "How certain are we that the event will occur?" The certainty we adopt can be described in terms of a numerical measure and this number, between 0 and 1, we call probability. [2] The higher the probability of an event, the more certain we are that the event will occur. Thus, probability in an applied sense is a measure of the confidence a person has that a (random) event will occur.

The concept has been given an axiomatic mathematical derivation in probability theory, which is used widely in such areas of study as mathematics, statistics, finance, gambling, science, artificial intelligence/machine learning and philosophy to, for example, draw inferences about the expected frequency of events. Probability theory is also used to describe the underlying mechanics and regularities of complex systems.


The Preliminary SAT/National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test (PSAT/NMSQT) is a standardized test administered by the College Board and National Merit Scholarship Corporation (NMSC) in the United States. This test is offered by the College Board. Approximately 3.5 million students take the PSAT/NMSQT each year. The scores from the PSAT/NMSQT are used (with the permission of the student) to determine eligibility and qualification for the National Merit Scholarship Program.
Students cannot register for it online and have to register for it through the high schools which are members of the College Board.

The test is composed of three sections: Math, Critical Reading, and Writing Skills, and takes two hours and ten minutes to complete. Each of the three sections is scored on a scale of 20 to 80 points, which add up to a maximum composite score of 240 points. This parallels the SAT, which is graded on a scale of 200 to 800 (the narrower range is to distinguish from which test a score comes and to denote less accuracy). However, unlike the new (2005) SAT, the new PSAT does not include higher-level mathematics (e.g., concepts from Algebra II) or an essay in its writing section (which was added to the SAT in 2005).

Since I tutor students in both SAT and PSAT, any student will benefit from my tutoring.

The test is mostly multiple-choice, but there are 10 open-response math questions that require takers to enter their responses on a grid. Students are allowed to use calculators on the math sections.


Reading comprehension is defined as the level of understanding of a text..

Proficient reading depends on the ability to recognize words quickly and effortlessly. Reading and comprehension are complex and are a "chicken egg" argument even today.

Instruction in comprehension strategy often involves the gradual release of responsibility, wherein teachers initially explain and model strategies. Over time, they give students more and more responsibility for using the strategies until they can use them independently.

Today, most reading comprehension programs teach students explicit reading strategies using teacher direct instruction with additional student practice.

A great resource for elementary teachers on these specific comprehension strategies is to go to the "Into the Book" website [1]. There you will find songs, book lists, posters, and activities to teach these specific strategies.

First, teach students about prior knowledge. On one of the posters from the Into the Book website, it explains that "Prior knowledge is using what you already know to help understand something new." To help students comprehend and learn from a specific reading material, they can access their prior knowledge on a subject to help them relate to the subject that they are learning at the moment.

Making a connection is when a student can relate a passage to an experience, another book, or other facts about the world. Making connections will help students understand what the author's purpose is and what the story is about. . Questioning is another strategy that will greatly benefit a student. Dr. Neil Postman has said, "All our knowledge results from questions, which is another way of saying that question-asking is our most important intellectual tool"

Summarizing is a comprehension strategy that also needs to be taught. Summarizing is not telling what is important about the text. A summary might include the answers to who, what, where, when, why, and how. You can not have students summarize any text that you are using the classroom.[citation needed]

Evaluation is about making judgments on what you read and then explaining why you made those judgments (Into the Book).

Synthesizing is putting the pieces together to see them in a new way Students will take what they already know about a subject along with their reflections from the book to create their own interpretation and ideas about a certain text

Putting all of these "tools" together will give your students a toolbox of strategies to help them with reading comprehension.
Reading different types of texts requires the use of different reading strategies and approaches. Making reading an active, observable process can be very beneficial to struggling readers. A good reader interacts with the text in order to develop an understanding of the information before them. Some good reader strategies are predicting, connecting, inferring, summarizing, analyzing and critiquing. There are many resources and activities educators and instructors of reading can use to help with reading strategies in specific content areas and disciplines. Some examples are graphic organizers, talking to the text, anticipation guides, double entry journals, interactive reading and note taking guides, chunking, and summarizing.

The National Reading Panel noted that comprehension strategy instruction is difficult for many teachers, particularly because they were not taught this way and because it is a very cognitively demanding task. They suggested that professional development can increase teachers' willingness to use reading strategies but admitted that much remains to be done in this area.[citation needed] The directed listening and thinking activity is a technique available to teachers to aid students in learning how to un-read and reading comprehension. It is also difficult for students that are new.

SAT Math

The Math skills required for the SAT are of a basic standard that should be within the reach of a tenth grade student. You don't need to learn up lots of new formulae but you will need to sharpen up your thinking skills.

Questions are of two main types:
• Problem solving - multiple choice (5 answer choices)
• Student-produced response questions ('grid-ins')

The three Math sections are organized as follows:
• One section of 25 minutes containing 8 problem solving questions and 10 grid-ins
• One section of 25 minutes containing 20 problem solving questions
• One section of 20 minutes containing 16 problem solving questions

You will see that there are a total of 54 scored math questions on one test. [Remember that each actual SAT test contains one experimental section of 25 minutes; this section could be math, writing or critical reading. Experimental sections will not be scored... they are used for research purposes.]

Math questions on the SAT will be of different difficulty levels. Each section will start out easy, move to medium level and end with hard questions.

In any of the question types you may be tested on basic arithmetic, algebra, geometry and a few miscellaneous topics (mainly data interpretation and applied math). As your tutor, please be prepared to discuss with me your strengths and weaknesses in Math so we can better focus on your areas of needed improvement.Of course your test scores on practice exams will be an invaluable guide

SAT Reading


SAT consists of three major sections: Critical Reading, Mathematics, and Writing. Each section receives a score on the scale of 200–800. All scores are multiples of 10. Total scores are calculated by adding up scores of the three sections. Each major section is divided into three parts. There are 10 sub-sections, including an additional 25-minute experimental or "equating" section that may be in any of the three major sections. The experimental section is used to normalize questions for future administrations of the SAT and does not count toward the final score. The test contains 3 hours and 45 minutes of actual timed sections, [9] although most administrations, including orientation, distribution of materials, completion of biographical sections, and eleven minutes of timed breaks, run about four and a half hours long. The questions range from easy, medium, and hard depending on the scoring from the experimental sections. Easier questions typically appear closer to the beginning of the section while harder questions are towards the end in certain sections. This is not true for every section (the Critical Reading section is in chronological order) but it is the rule of thumb mainly for math and the 19 sentence completions on the test.

Critical Reading

The Critical Reading (formerly Verbal) section of the SAT is made up of three scored sections: two 25-minute sections and one 20-minute section, with varying types of questions, including sentence completions and questions about short and long reading passages. Critical Reading sections normally begin with 5 to 8 sentence completion questions; the remainder of the questions are focused on the reading passages. Sentence completions generally test the student's vocabulary and understanding of sentence structure and organization by requiring the student to select one or two words that best complete a given sentence. The bulk of the Critical Reading section is made up of questions regarding reading passages, in which students read short excerpts on social sciences, humanities, physical sciences, or personal narratives and answer questions based on the passage. Certain sections contain passages asking the student to compare two related passages; generally, these consist of shorter reading passages. The number of questions about each passage is proportional to the length of the passage. Unlike in the Mathematics section, where questions go in the order of difficulty, questions in the Critical Reading section go in the order of the passage. Overall, question sets towards the beginning of the section are easier, and question sets towards the end of the section are harder.

SAT Writing

SAT Writing

The writing section of the SAT, includes multiple choice questions and a brief essay. The essay subscore contributes about 28% towards the total writing score, with the multiple choice questions contributing 70%.
The multiple choice questions include error identification questions, sentence improvement questions, and paragraph improvement questions. Error identification and sentence improvement questions test the student's knowledge of grammar, presenting an awkward or grammatically incorrect sentence; in the error identification section, the student must locate the word producing the source of the error or indicate that the sentence has no error, while the sentence improvement section requires the student to select an acceptable fix to the awkward sentence. The paragraph improvement questions test the student's understanding of logical organization of ideas, presenting a poorly written student essay and asking a series of questions as to what changes might be made to best improve it.

The essay section, which is always administered as the first section of the test, is 25 minutes long. All essays must be in response to a given prompt. The prompts are broad and often philosophical and are designed to be accessible to students regardless of their educational and social backgrounds. For instance, test takers may be asked to expand on such ideas as their opinion on the value of work in human life or whether technological change also carries negative consequences to those who benefit from it. No particular essay structure is required, and the College Board accepts examples "taken from [the student's] reading, studies, experience, or observations." Two trained readers assign each essay a score between 1 and 6, where a score of 0 is reserved for essays that are blank, off-topic, non-English, not written with a Number 2 pencil, or considered illegible after several attempts at reading. The scores are summed to produce a final score from 2 to 12 (or 0). If the two readers' scores differ by more than one point, then a senior third reader decides. The average time each reader/grader spends on each essay is less than 3 minutes.

Series 63

The Uniform Securities Agent State Law Examination, commonly referred to as the Series 63, is developed by North American Securities Administrators Association (NASAA) and is administered by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA). The examination is designed to qualify candidates as securities agents within a state; nearly all states require individuals to pass the Series 63 as a condition of state registration.

The Uniform Securities Agent State Law Examination consists of 65 multiple-choice questions. Applicants are allowed 75 minutes to complete the examination. Applicants must attain scores of 72% in order to pass. Credit is only given for correct answers. Of the 65 questions on the exam, 60 will count toward the final score. The remaining 5 questions are being pre-tested for possible inclusion in the operational question bank; these questions may appear anywhere in the exam and are not identified.

The examination covers the principles of state securities regulation reflected in the Uniform Securities Act (with the amendments adopted by NASAA and rules prohibiting dishonest and unethical business practices). The examination is intended to provide a basis for state securities administrators to determine an applicant's knowledge and understanding of state law and regulations.

Series 7

Series 7

In the United States, all individuals seeking to become a stockbroker must take the General Securities Representative Exam, commonly referred to as the Series 7 or Stockbroker Exam. A passing grade is required in order to obtain the professional license needed to become a Registered Representative of a broker-dealer in the United States.

The exam is a six-hour, 260 question test (250 of which count towards the final score) that is owned, maintained and administered by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA), which covers a broad range of investments including stocks, bonds, options, limited partnerships, and investment company products (e.g., open- and closed-end funds). As of November 7, 2011, candidate must answer at least 72% of the questions correctly in order to pass. Upon passing the test, one is granted a Series 7/General Securities license.

The Series 7 license is the most comprehensive of several securities licenses that permit an agent to communicate with retail investors. For this reason, many account managers, analysts, and other executives in the employ of a registered Broker/Dealer hold Series 7 licenses. To satisfy the securities dealing requirements of some states, Series 7 license holders must also hold either the Series 63 license or the Series 66 license, depending on the state the licensee works in as well as the state his/her clients reside in.

Typically, the average score of test-takers is around 73%, with around 66% of test-takers achieving a passing score. While one can study from the content outline provided by FINRA, many choose to use the materials of a third-party training vendor.

This exam is administered by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (previously known as the NASD). In order to take the exam an individual must be sponsored by a member firm of either the FINRA or a Self Regulatory Organization (SRO).

As of March 2012, the current registration cost is $265 according to FINRA.


Structured Query Language (SQL) is a widely-used programming language for working with relational databases.

It is a basic component of relational data bases including Microsoft ACCESS and open source PHP/MYSQL
SQL. It is a language to request data from a database, to add, update, or remove data within a database, or to manipulate the metadata of the database.


The Secondary School Admission Test, or SSAT, is an admissions test administered by the Secondary School Admission Test Board (SSATB) to students in grades 5-11 to help determine placement into independent or private junior high and high schools.

There are two levels of the test: the Lower level for students in grades 5-7 and the Upper level, designed for students in grades 8-11. The SSAT consists of two parts: a brief essay and multiple choice sections that include Mathematics, Reading Comprehension, and Verbal. The test, written in English, is primarily administered in the United States and Canada at various test centers, which usually are independent schools.
Despite the similarity in name, the SSAT is not related to the SAT Reasoning Test and is not administered by the College Board.

1 Test sections 1.1 Mathematics
1.2 Verbal
1.3 Reading Comprehension
1.4 Essay

2 Scoring
3 External links

Test sections


There are two 30 minute math sections with 25 questions each that require basic computations including some basic algebra, this section is called quantitative reasoning. All questions are basic math.They vary from word problems to equations.


The verbal section is 30 minutes long and consists of 30 synonym and 30 analogy questions.

Reading Comprehension

The 40 minute reading comprehension section has 40 questions based around seven given reading passages. These questions not only require test takers to comprehend what they are reading but also to read quickly.

In the essay part of the test, test takers are asked to support or argue against a topic statement by using examples from personal experience, history, literature and current events. The essay section is 25 minutes long and test takers are given one side of a piece of paper to write the essay. The essay is not scored. However it is sent to school admissions offices along with the scores for the other sections

All questions on the Secondary School Admissions Test are equal in value and scores are based on the number of questions correctly answered less a one-quarter point for each question answered incorrectly. No points are awarded or deducted for questions left unanswered. The scaled score for the Upper Level is 500- 800 and the Lower Level is 440- 710.

The Secondary School Admissions Test score report provides scaled scores for each section as well as percentile ranks for each category, comparing a student's score to others of the same grade and gender who have taken the test in the past three years. Also in the score report are estimated national percentile ranks for 5-7 grade test takers and projected 12th grade SAT scores for test takers in grades 8-11.

Upon receiving their scores, students can send the results to the independent schools they wish to apply to. Each school then evaluates the scores according to its own standards and requirements.


Statistics is the study of the collection, organization, analysis, and interpretation of data. It deals with all aspects of this, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments.
It is related to probability theory and uses functions known as distributions (Binomial Poisson and Normal(Gaussian)
Applied Statistics are essential in the study of drug trials and radiation measurements


The Test Of English as a Foreign Language or TOEFL evaluates the ability of an individual to use and understand English in an academic setting. It was developed to address the problem on ensuring English language proficiency for non-native speakers wishing to study at American universities. It has become an admission requirement for non-native English speakers at many English-speaking colleges and universities. Additionally, institutions such as government agencies, licensing bodies, businesses, or scholarship programs may require this test. A TOEFL score is valid for two years and then will no longer be officially reported since a candidate's language proficiency could have significantly changed since the date of the test. Colleges and universities usually consider only the most recent TOEFL score.

The TOEFL Committee of Examiners is composed of 12 specialists in linguistics, language testing, teaching or research. Its main responsibility is to advise on TOEFL test content. The committee helps ensure the test is a valid measure of English language proficiency reflecting current trends and methodologies.

The TOEFL test is a registered trademark of Educational Testing Service (ETS) and is administered worldwide. It will be offered online only after 2012.


Trigonometry is a branch of mathematics that studies triangles and the relationships between their sides and the angles between these sides. Trigonometry defines the trigonometric functions, which describe those relationships and have applicability to cyclical phenomena, such as waves. It is used extensively for astronomical studies. It is also the foundation of the practical art of surveying.

Trigonometry basics are often taught in school either as a separate course or as part of a precalculus course.

The trigonometric functions are pervasive in parts of pure mathematics and applied mathematics such as Fourier analysis and the wave equation, which are in turn essential to many branches of science and technology. Spherical trigonometry studies triangles on spheres, surfaces of constant positive curvature, in elliptic geometry. It is fundamental to astronomy and navigation.


Definition Vocabulary a sum or stock of words employed by a language, group, individual, or work or in a field of knowledge.It is obvious that the best communicators (writing or verbal) have excellent vocabularies.

It is one subject where "practice makes perfect"i.e. you need a good vocabulary to completely express your thought and feelings as well as understanding those of others

Vocabulary is a key success factor in life (KSF).

World History

World History is obviously a very broad subject encompassing Ancient Greek/Latin Egyptian, Middle Eastern, Oriental, the Dark ages, the Renaissance and Modern history.


An essay can have many purposes, but the basic structure is the same no matter what. You may be writing an essay to argue for a particular point of view or to explain the steps necessary to complete a task.

Either way, your essay will have the same basic format.

If you follow a few simple steps, you will find that the essay almost writes itself. You will be responsible only for supplying ideas, which are the important part of the essay anyway

These simple steps will guide you through the essay writing process:

Decide on your topic.

Prepare an outline or diagram of your ideas.

Write your thesis statement.

Write the body.

Write the main points.
Write the subpoints.
Elaborate on the subpoints.

Write the introduction.

Write the conclusion.

Add the finishing touches.

Lehigh University (Bethlehem, PA)
Northeastern University -Control Systems Design
Graduate Coursework
Wharton School Managerial Finance
Graduate Coursework


Lehigh University (Bethlehem, PA) (ENG PHYSICS)

Northeastern University -Control Systems Design (Graduate Coursework)

Wharton School Managerial Finance (Graduate Coursework)

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