Anatomy is a branch of natural science dealing with the structural organization of living things. It is one of the basic life sciences, included in the curriculum of health science programs.
The human body operates through systems summarized below:
A. Musculoskeletal System: The human skeleton consists of more than 200 bones bound together by tough and relatively inelastic connective tissues called ligaments.
B. Nervous System: The nervous system has two divisions: the somatic, which allows voluntary control of skeletal muscle, and the autonomic, which is involuntary, and controls cardiac and smooth muscle and glands. The autonomic nervous system has two divisions: the sympathetic and the parasympathetic.
C. Circulatory System: In passing through the system, blood pumped by the heart follows a winding course through the right chambers of the heart, into the lungs, where it picks up oxygen, and back into the left chambers of the heart.
D. Immune System: The body defends itself against foreign proteins and infectious microorganisms by means of a complex dual system that depends on recognizing a portion of the surface pattern of the invader. The two parts of the system are termed cellular immunity, here, lymphocytes are the effective agent, and humoral immunity, based on the action of antibody molecules.
E. Respiratory System: Respiration is carried on by the expansion and contraction of the lungs; the process and the rate at which it proceeds are controlled by a nervous center in the brain. In the lungs, oxygen enters tiny capillaries, where it combines with hemoglobin in the red blood cells and is carried to the tissues, and carbon dioxide is picked up from the tissues and carried back to the lungs for expulsion.
F. Digestive and Excretory Systems: The energy required for maintenance and proper functioning of the human body is supplied by food. After it’s broken into fragments by chewing and mixed with saliva, digestion begins. The food passes into the stomach, where the gastric and intestinal juices continue the process. This mixture of food and secretions (chyme), is pushed down the alimentary canal by peristalsis.
G. The Endocrine System: In addition to the integrative action of the nervous system, control of various body functions is exerted by the endocrine glands. An important part of this system, the pituitary, lies at the base of the brain. This master gland secretes a variety of hormones, including the following: (1) a hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland and controls its secretion of thyroxine, which dictates the rate at which all cells utilize oxygen; (2) a hormone that controls the secretion in the adrenal gland of hormones that influence the metabolism of carbohydrates, sodium, and potassium and control the rate at which substances are exchanged between blood and tissue fluid; (3) substances that control the secretion in the ovaries of estrogen and progesterone and the creation in the testicles of testosterone; (4) the somatotropic, or growth, hormone, which controls the rate of development of the skeleton and large interior organs through its effect on the metabolism of proteins and carbohydrates; and (5) an insulin inhibitor—a lack of insulin causes diabetes mellitus.
H. The Reproductive System: From puberty to menopause, the process of ovulation, and preparation, and menstruation is repeated monthly except for periods of pregnancy. The duration of pregnancy is about 280 days. After childbirth, prolactin, a hormone secreted by the pituitary, activates the production of milk.
I. Skin: The skin is an organ of double-layered tissue stretched over the surface of the body and protecting it from drying or losing fluid, from harmful external substances, and from extremes of temperature. The inner layer, called the dermis, contains sweat glands, blood vessels, nerve endings (sense receptors), and the bases of hair and nails. The outer layer, the epidermis, is only a few cells thick; it contains pigments, pores, and ducts, and its surface is made of dead cells that it sheds from the body.
Career development is much more than preparing for a job and earning a living. That is, career development involves both short and long range thinking about what you want to do when you "grow up." Indeed, in the short term it is essential to develop a skill set that is of interest to prospective employers. This may involve apprentiseship training, attendance at a technical school, and/or getting a college education. While you likely have inate talents and skills, most prospective employers today also require documentation that you have expanded and honed your natural skill set in ways that will likely match and contribute to the continued success of their organization.
Career development certification that deals with the longer term aspect of career development. Specifically, visioning and goal setting. More specifically, determining what you see yourself doing 1, 3, and 5 years from today. Next, giving consideration to how you can best prepare now to achieve your vision and goals. For example, as a nurse, I developed a skill set that enabled me to be continuously employed and earn a comfortable living which met my short term objective. In addition, my vision was to be able to advance in my profession, move from state to state without restriction, and explore diverse opportunities. In order to realize this vision, it was necessary to determine the type and amount of education I would need, learn how to network, communicate effectively with people from diverse backgrounds, as well as become a risk taker.
From a broad perspective, career development is about a life of learning that spans your life time.
I have over two decades of experience as a university professor. While my undergraduate and graduate education is in health science education and nursing, I am also a writer who loves teaching grammar, punctuation, spelling, reading, and literature. I am widely read with very broad interests and a passion for working with students from varied ethnic backgrounds (e.g., Korea, China, Spain, Brazil, and several West African countries).
I have diverse knowledge in various areas of study such as philosophy of science, women in literature, and administration and management. Also, I possess a wide-ranging ability in offering helping services to students who are seeking to improve their English, grammar, reading, and writing skills. I am a flexible tutor and am willing to work with you to develop a learning plan that fits your needs and enables you to meet your goals. I enjoy working with all age groups.
I am a licensed Registered Nurse with a Bachelor’s degree is in Health Science Education, and graduate and doctoral degrees in nursing. My background and experience in nursing provide me with requisite and essential skills in reading, writing, math, literature and social studies.
I give individual attention to student learning needs and seek to establish rapport. My overall desire is to facilitate improvement in English language skills for each student. Along with my experience working with students from diverse ethnic backgrounds, I am patient, flexible, have a positive attitude and approach to tutoring.
I am a licensed Registered Nurse with a Bachelor’s degree is in Health Science Education. I also have graduate and doctoral education in nursing.
My background and experience in nursing has provided me with requisite and essential skills in reading, writing, math, science, and critical thinking, as well as literature and social studies. These are subjects needed to understand and pass the GED.
In addition, I have more than 20 years’ experience teaching students in undergraduate and graduate nursing programs. I've worked extensively with middle and high school age students, and students from diverse ethnic and language backgrounds. I seek to be a positive role model and am patient and able to work well with teens as well as adults.
My tutoring approach includes initial assessment in order to create a learning program that fits each unique students needs. I conduct informal evaluation of students to determine whether they are progressing. As needed and indicated, I assist students with improving their critical thinking, problem-solving, and information processing and communication skills.
The contribution of grammar to crisp, concise communication crystallized for me when one of my graduate professors pointed out my deficiencies in this area. Fortunately, she was willing to work with me to improve my grammar and overall writing skills.
I learned that through proper grammar it is possible to create meaning out of what would otherwise merely be words strung together. When grammar is used incorrectly, sentences become meaningless, messages are obfuscated and it can become impossible to effectively express oneself either verbally or in writing.
Grammar has been described as the glue that holds the English language together. That is, grammar is the way in which sentences are structured and language is formatted. While grammar may be considered a bit boring gaining facility in the use of correct grammar is an essential skill to one’s professional success. It really is worth the time and effort. Without knowing the rules of grammar, it is virtually impossible to communicate clearly and effectively in the English language.
I have used PowerPoint for many years and have made more than 100 presentations to audiences ranging in size from 10 to 400 people. The presentations included text slides, graphics, animation, music as well as photographs downloaded from the web, and camera.
Tables and charts are a great way to augment research presentations and share data in a very interesting format. Large audiences are much more easily engaged when your slides have great pictures and color. For example, in a presentation on change, I downloaded pictures of white water rapids to emphasize the rapidity of change and its potential impact on the members of team members.
PowerPoint is a fabulous tool that when used effectively can ramp up your presentations and almost certainly ensure repeat engagements at other events. I would be pleased to work with you to make you and your presentation stand out and shine.
The National Council Licensure Examination-RN (NCLEX-RN) is an examination taken by all graduates of nursing programs providing content required to "sit" for licensure as a Registered Nurse. There are three types of entry level nursing programs: Hospital based Diploma Nursing Programs, Associate Degree Nursing Programs, and Baccalaureate Nursing Programs. While you cannot enter the RN Workforce without graduating from one of these programs, mere graduation does not legally entitle you to represent yourself as a Registered Nurse. The title Registered Nurse (RN) is a legal designation much like that of Medical Doctor (MD), Dentist (DDS), and as with these professions requires a license to practice that is granted upon successful completion of the appropriate licensure examination.
It is possible to take the licensure examination more than once. However, your best opportunity for success is the first time that you take it. Most program graduates are advised to take the examination within 90-days after graduation. The examination is computer based which often poses a challenge for some graduates who are less proficient with computers. Therefore, as part of your preparation for the exam, I strongly advise that you do all practice on the computer rather than pencil and paper.
Before taking the NCLEX-RN, I spent many hours reviewing content with which I was less confident, taking practice tests, and getting comfortable with multiple choice exam questions. Research findings indicate that it is not enough to know the content, it is also essential that you know how to answer multiple choice questions. For example, it is typically the case that several responses can quickly be eliminated as a viable options. However, there may be at least two that represent reasonable responses. This is where your critical thinking skills will come into play and be invaluable in differentiating between the two options to determine which is the best.
You've probably concluded by now that success on the NCLEX-RN is predicated on knowledge of essential content learned in your nursing program, as well as your ability to critically think and discriminate between multiple reasonable options. Consequently, tutoring must focus on assessment of content knowledge, understanding of context surrounding the content, your approach to answering the questions, your test-taking skills, and your comfort level with test-taking. It may be necessary to spend some time on relaxation techniques, distressing, and generally identifying approaches that enhance your overall confidence in ability to be successful.
Nurses play a vital role in providing direct patient care. Basic nursing functions and skills include assessing and monitoring patients, administering medication per orders, placing IVs and catheters and performing intubations, assisting patients with personal care, providing patient education and much more.
In order to engage in the practice of nursing, it is necessary to successfully complete an accredited nursing program, as well as take and pass a practical nursing or registering nursing licensure examination.
Nursing schools provide intense programs of learning that focus on content related to the sciences (e.g., anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology, pediatrics, medical-surgical, obstetrical and other areas), math, critical thinking, prioritization, risk reduction, etc). Tutoring provides a safe, structured non-graded environment for review of relevant content, and growth in test taking abilities. This type of tutoring has a twofold purpose: 1) augment the foundation for success in the nursing program, and 2) aid in preparation for the licensure examination.
This tutoring approach includes focus on test-taking strategies, along with critical reading and thinking skills. Computer NCLEX-PN and NCLEX-RN type practice questions are used to hone test-taking skills, and augment comfort in computer-based testing. Learning is further facilitated through individualized review of answers to test questions and attendant rationales. Feedback is constant, supportive and speedy.
Pharmacology introduces you to pharmaco-therapeutics, and gives a foundation for understanding the essentials regarding the principles governing drug interactions, dose-response relationships, desensitization, and tolerance. Drug toxicity, allergies, how drugs act and react biologically at receptor sites in the body.
I have 15 plus years of teaching introductory and advanced pharmacology to students in undergraduate and graduate nursing programs. Also, I supervision nursing students in the clinical setting who were administering drugs to pediatric and adult patients with acute and chronic illnesses such as cancer, diabetes, Cystic Fibrosis, Cushing’s syndrome, respiratory, renal, heart, thyroid disease, hypertension, etc.
In the clinical setting, I mentored students by assisting them with researching each drug to learn: 1) their therapeutic and side effects, 2)the interaction effects between prescription meds, as well as any OTC drugs and herbal remedies, 3) the effect on glucose, sodium, and potassium, 4) and effect on vital signs and other electrolytes. Administration also included patient teaching about how to take the meds, signs of toxicity, and other untoward effects.
I have completed course work in Philosophy of Science that included examination of abstract concepts, theories, the logical structure of ideas, and other phenomena. My studies and experiences also include logic, ethics, aesthetics, epistemology, and symbolism.
In addition, I have developed case studies related to end of life, abortion, advance directives, organ transplant, genetics, and stem cells to aid undergraduate and graduate students in understanding the role medical ethics plays in decision making about these issues. The case study approach was most effective as it afforded students the opportunity to discuss and debate the issues as well as work through their own biases and concerns.
Physiology involves the study of the normal functioning of animals and plants during life and of the activities by which life is maintained and transmitted. It is based fundamentally on the activities of protoplasm. It includes the study of vital activities in cells, tissues, and organs—of processes such as contractility of muscle tissue, coordination through the nervous system, feeding, digestion, excretion, respiration, circulation, reproduction, and secretion. The study of human physiology embraces many chemical and physical principles. Physiological processes are dynamic; cells change their function in response to changes in the composition of their local environment, and the organism responds to alterations in both its internal and external environment. Many physiological reactions are aimed at preserving a constant physical and chemical internal environment (homeostasis).
Psychology is the systematic and scientific study of the behavior and mental processes, in this case of human beings. Tutoring Includes review of the psychological facts, principles, and phenomena associated with the major areas of psychology. If needed, tutoring may also include review of the ethics and methods used by psychologist’s science and practice.
The aim of tutoring is to provide sufficient review of material typically presented in introductory psychology courses in order to augment and strengthen learning needed for success. Lessons will be collaboratively developed and centered on your learning needs.
Gaining facility in public speaking is a learned and practiced endeavor. Success in public speaking hinges on selecting a topic about which you are knowledgeable and passionate. Get comfortable with the content area through continual study such that you know more about it than you could ever possibly include in a presentation. Develop a sense of humor and be able to laugh at yourself. Something that has been very beneficial to me is putting together a folder of inspirational quotes and stories that I can include in my presentations.
While many public speakers utilize a prepared script from which they rarely deviate. I have found that I am most comfortable and effective when I utilize notes and prompts rather than a script. When I've used a script, the script interfered with my ability to focus on the audience, to read their level of engagement, and to make adjustments as needed to maintain their interest. Figuring out whether you are a script or notes person can be learned by trialing both approaches in a practice environment. For example, part of the coaching could include video taping of you presenting with and without a script and critiquing which was most effective.
It essential that you know your audience. One way to get to know an audience is to arrive early and circulate. Introduce yourself, and listen.It is easier to speak to a group even if you've only met one or two people than to a room full of unknowns. Be familiar with the venue and your technology equipment. This will reduce your nervousness and enable you to focus on the audience. Practice what you plan to say in advance as it will help you to relax.
I have found that imagery and visualization are very useful techniques to help me relax and be more confident. Visualize yourself in the room actually presenting. Listen to the sound of your voice, and imagine the audience's positive response, this will boost your confidence. Expect that the audience wants to hear what you have to say and that they want you to succeed.
Focus on the message that you want to deliver and don't apologize for any nervousness you may feel. Typically, the audience does not know that you are nervous and actually, they do not want to know. Remember that it's not about you, rather it's about what you have to share with the audience and how the message may be of benefit to them. In the main, experience builds confidence, so take advantage of opportunities to speak in public whenever you can. Toastmasters club can provide such opportunities.
Reading is about understanding what is said as well as understanding the biases, assumptions, and perspectives underlying the discussion. Reading is not merely seeing the world through a text; rather the world becomes portrayed by a text. Reading brings into view an understanding of what a text says–restatement; what a text does–description; and what a text means–interpretation.
English sentences are composed of a topic and something said about that topic, commonly referred to as the subject and predicate. SENTENCE = SUBJECT + PREDICATE. Each of these elements is characterized by a combination of three elements or perspectives: a position or slot within a sentence, a form or type of grammatical construction, and a meaning. Reading enables us to know about a topic, and to ask salient questions that help to generate informed answers. Through reading, diverse perspectives are recognized and distinctions made between personal, social, and institutional concerns, as well as between fact, opinion, and belief.
Reading is primary. One can write only as well as one reads. Many people read, decipher words and sentences on the page, but do not have a sufficient grasp of spelling and grammar to construct their own sentences. Reading is an essential companion to writing. That is, one cannot write without reading what is written or understanding how language works to communicate ideas.
All writers rely on their skills as readers. They must realize not only what they have said, but what they have done. And they must evaluate how what they have done will get them where they want to go. What additional ingredients are required? What other aspects must be considered? What misunderstandings must be prevented?
Critical reading is an analytic activity. The reader rereads a text to identify patterns of elements -- information, values, assumptions, and language usage-- throughout the discussion. These elements are tied together in an interpretation, an assertion of an underlying meaning of the text as a whole.
Critical thinking involves bringing outside knowledge, biases, and values to bear to evaluate the presentation and decide what ultimately to accept as truth Thus; critical reading relies on abstracting, on classifying the nature of things. Critical reading is a technique for discovering information and ideas within a text.
I have coached high school and college students to aid them in gaining study skills that enabled academic success. Experience has taught me that overall success in a program of study is dependent on factors such as time management, problem solving, critical thinking, meeting challenges, setting reasonable goals and objectives, prioritizing and avoiding procrastination, and being proactive. Often, study skills that foster academic success have more to do with learning to learn than learning a body of knowledge content.
It is important to determine what type of learner you are--visual, kinesthetic, verbal, tactile, other. Once this is determine, tutoring can be structured to your best advantage. It is also necessary to make tutoring sessions active rather than passive in order to engage you in the process of identifying, developing and mastering skills that put you at the strongest advantage for success.
Learning how to learn is a process that involves time and change. Approached with commitment, you will gain increased skill and facility with the learning process that will enhance your overall academic performance. As you learn how to think about academic challenges, you will become increasingly self-confident about your ability to succeed.
My coaching methods include practicing classroom participation, learning how to interact with teachers/faculty, note taking, preparation for the classrooom, how to use multiple study approaches, and utilizing "if-then" scenarios to help you identify viable options to classroom problems/challenges.
A strong set of study skills will move you forward to desired academic outcomes.
Effective writing is essential for success in virtually every endeavor. Tutoring in this area helps to build on and expand writing skills that you likely already have. Tutoring also burnishes and augments critical thinking and reading skills with an emphasis on the professional, public, and/or academic aspects that you may need for continued growth and development generally or specifically in your career field.
To share ideas and information with others, it is necessary to organize your material, structure your ideas, and frame your concepts in language that is both precise enough to be accurate and direct enough to be clear. Typically this needs to be done with speed and precision.
Tutoring will aide you in learning how to diagnose and fix trouble spots that can make your writing unclear. Tutoring will also enable you to refocus information to better reach different audiences, such as colleagues, clients, or the general public. This is done by using a “reader based” approach to writing. Through this approach you will gain skill in structuring (e.g., sentence structures, paragraph structures, and text structures) your writing in ways that increase the probability of engendering a particular response.